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BBC News - Concern over newspapers' decline in Wales

28 August 2010 Last updated at 04:44 ET

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Concern over newspapers' decline in Wales

The Western Mail and Daily Post The Western Mail is the only Welsh daily newspaper to be distributed around Wales

The circulation of every regional daily newspaper in Wales has fallen, with the country's flagship title the Western Mail dipping below the 30,000 mark.

The figures, which reveal the number of copies distributed on an average day for the first half of 2010, have led to concern about the future of the industry in Wales.

Media lecturer James Stewart said it was worrying for Welsh democracy.

The Western Mail said its circulation trend was "improving slightly".

Newspapers across the UK have seen the number of copies sold and read continuously fall over recent years.

The latest figures show that only one of the UK's 86 regional daily newspapers increased its sales year-on-year in the first half of 2010 - the DC Thomson-owned Dundee Evening Telegraph.

Of the Welsh titles, the Western Mail - the only daily that covers the whole of Wales - saw the biggest drop in circulation during the first half of 2010 compared with the same period last year, down 10.2%.

Its average daily circulation was 29,567.

The Daily Post, which covers north Wales, had the smallest year-on-year decline in circulation at -4.5%, with an average daily circulation figure higher than the Western Mail at 32,414.

The newspaper with the highest circulation figure was the South Wales Evening Post, which covers the Swansea area, with an average figure of 42,619.

Continue reading the main story

Start Quote

It emerged 90% of people in Wales read a paper that doesn't contain Welsh news”

End Quote James Stewart Senior lecturer in journalism

James Stewart, who worked at the Western Mail and South Wales Echo in the late 1970s and early 80s and is now senior lecturer in journalism at the University of Glamorgan, said the figures were "sad and worrying".

He said when he worked at the Western Mail, its circulation figure was around 90,000, adding there were serious implications about its decline over the last 30 years.

"As we're coming up to a referendum next year on more powers for the Welsh assembly, how many people in Wales are watching Welsh news or reading papers that discuss these things? Most people are not," he said.

"In evidence given to the assembly's culture committee recently, which was looking into public service broadcasting, it emerged 90% of people in Wales read a paper that doesn't contain Welsh news.

"That's very worrying if you want an electorate who knows what's going on and is engaged in the democratic process."

Habits changing

He added: "What are their other sources of information? There's the BBC - but how many young people watch local news on television or listen to it on the radio? There have also been major questions about the news resources at ITV Wales."

Mr Stewart, who also previously worked at BBC Wales, said he believed that many young people did not read newspapers and were more likely to go online, while even the habits of traditional readers were changing.

"You have to ask what the difference was 30 years ago," he said.

Continue reading the main story

Start Quote

Despite the obvious challenging circulation environment there has been a slight improvement in the circulation trend for both the South Wales Echo and the Western Mail”

End Quote Alan Edmunds Publishing director, Media Wales

"The number of journalists at the Western Mail has gone down. The quality of their journalism is still very good but they just haven't got the resources they used to have.

"It's sad but on the other hand, as someone now involved in education, it's interesting to look at where journalism will now go. How will people be informed? We have to look at how that will be done."

He added that it was too soon to say whether newspaper companies would be able to make their websites work, as they currently do not get as much advertising revenue from them as they do from newspapers.

Alan Edmunds, publishing director at Media Wales - home to the Western Mail and the South Wales Echo - said the company's website was helping them reach a "large audience".

"Despite the obvious challenging circulation environment there has been a slight improvement in the circulation trend for both the South Wales Echo and the Western Mail as a result of a number of editorial and publishing enhancements," he said.

'Challenging environment'

"For example, we're planning to launch the second phase of the South Wales Echo's redesign in September and this will be backed up by a number of newspaper sales initiatives.

"Following a redesign in June, the Western Mail has continued to focus on serving its key business and political audiences in print and through the large audience we reach through WalesOnline."

Rob Irvine, publishing director at Trinity Mirror North Wales, which publishes the Daily Post, said it too had seen a rise in people using its website.

"We've seen an improvement to the circulation trend for the Daily Post which is encouraging in the current challenging environment and we're delighted with a significant increase to our unique user numbers for dailypost.co.uk, up 28% period on period and 43% year on year," he said.

"The Daily Post remains focused on serving our audiences and advertisers across print, online and mobile."

The South Wales Evening Post and the Leader have been asked to comment, while the South Wales Argus did not want to comment.

Newspaper Average circulation for first half of 2010 % change year-on-year

Source: The Press Gazette

South Wales Evening Post



South Wales Echo



Daily Post



The Western Mail



South Wales Argus



The Leader



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Robert Noyce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Robert Noyce

Born December 12, 1927(1927-12-12)
Burlington, Iowa
Died June 3, 1990 (aged 62)
Austin, Texas
Alma mater Grinnell College
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Occupation Co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Bottomley
Ann Bowers
Children William B. Noyce
Pendred Noyce
Priscilla Noyce
Margaret Noyce
Parents Ralph Brewster Noyce
Harriet May Norton

Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the invention of the integrated circuit or microchip.[1] While Kilby's invention was six months earlier, neither man rejected the title of co-inventor. Noyce was also a mentor and father-figure to an entire generation of entrepreneurs, including Steve Jobs at Apple, Inc.[2][3]


[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life and ancestors

He was born on December 12, 1927, in Burlington, Iowa,[4][5] to a family with deep Midwestern roots that trace back to Mayflower passengers, Love Brewster, a founder of the town of Bridgewater, Massachusetts; Elder William Brewster, the Pilgrim colonist leader and spiritual elder of the Plymouth Colony; and William Bradford, Governor of the Plymouth Colony and the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact in Provincetown Harbor.[6][7][8]

He was also a descendant of Martha Wadsworth Brewster,[9] a notable 18th-century American poet and writer, and the Rev. Reuben Gaylord, a clergyman and a founder of Grinnell College.[10][11]

He was the third of four sons[4][5] of the Rev. Ralph Brewster Noyce.[12][13] His father was a 1915 graduate of Doane College; a 1920 graduate of Oberlin College, and a 1923 graduate of Chicago Theological Seminary. He was a Congregational clergyman and the associate superintendent of the Iowa Conference of Congregational Churches in the 1930s and 1940s.

His mother, Harriet May Norton, a 1921 graduate of Oberlin College, was the daughter of the Rev. Milton J. Norton, a Congregational clergyman, and Louise Hill. She has been described as a intelligent woman with a commanding will.[14]

His earliest childhood memory involves beating his father at Ping Pong and feeling absolutely devastated when his mother's reaction to this thriling news was a distracted "Wasn't that nice of Daddy to let you win?" Even at the age of five, Noyce was offended by the notion of intentionally losing at anything. "That's not the game," he sulked to his mother. "If you're going to play, play to win!"[15]

In the summer of 1940, when he was 12, he built a boy-sized aircraft with his brother Gaylord, which they used to fly from the roof of the Grinnell College stables. Later he built a radio from scratch and motorized his sled by welding a propeller and an engine from an old washing machine to the back of it.[16]

[edit] Education

He grew up in Grinnell, Iowa and attended the local schools. He exhibited a talent for math and science while in high school and took the Grinnell College freshman physics course in his senior year. He graduated from Grinnell High School in 1945 and entered Grinnell College in the fall of that year. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BA in physics and mathematics from Grinnell College in 1949. He also received a signal honor from his classmates: the Brown Derby Prize, which recognized "the senior man who earned the best grades with the least amount of work". He received his Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953. He studied the first transistors, developed at Bell Laboratories, in a Grinnell College classroom.

While an undergraduate, Noyce attended a physics course of the professor Grant Gale and was fascinated by the physics. Gale got hold of two of the very first transistors ever to come out of Bell Labs and showed them off to his class and Noyce was hooked. At the same time however, Bob had problems, because of his intractable nature. His tipping outhouses, lighting illegal fireworks were harmless, but when he and a partner in crime downed a few drinks and set off to steal the pig for the luau, this was a different matter entirely.

When Noyce and his housemate repented and returned to the farm with an offer to pay for the pig, whose absence had not yet been noticed, the farmer was furious. He complained to Grinnell's president, Samuel Nowell Stevens, and well as contacting the local sheriff and insisted on bringing criminal charges against them. Robert's last year in the college were suspended and in 1948 he was exiled not only from the college, but from the town of Grinnell as well.[14][17]

He decided to spend his semester's expulsion working as a clerk in the actuarial department of the Equitable Life Insurance Company in New York City.[18] He returned to Grinnell and graduated with his class in the spring of 1949.

Then he tried to join the United States Air Force, but when he learned he could not serve as a fighter pilot, because he was color blind, he swore to avoid military service all together.[18] Grant Gale wrote to suggest he apply to the doctoral program in physics at MIT which he did.[19] He had a mind so quick that his graduate school friends called him "Rapid Robert".[20]

[edit] Career

After graduating from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953, he took his first job as a research engineer at the Philco Corporation in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He left in 1956 for the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, California.

He joined William Shockley at the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory,[21] a division of Beckman Instruments, but left with the "Traitorous Eight".[22] in 1957, because of the poor management of the company, to create the influential Fairchild Semiconductor corporation. According to Sherman Fairchild, Noyce's impassioned presentation of his vision was the reason Sherman Fairchild had agreed to create the semiconductor division for the Traitorous Eight.[22]

Noyce and Gordon E. Moore founded Intel in 1968 when they left Fairchild Semiconductor.[20][23] Arthur Rock, the chairman of Intel's board and a major investor in the company said that for Intel to succeed, Intel needed Noyce, Moore and Grove. And it needed them in that order. Noyce: the visionary, born to inspire; Moore: the virtuoso of technology; and Grove: the technologist turned management scientist.[24] The relaxed culture that Noyce brought to Intel was a carry-over from his style at Fairchild Semiconductor. He treated employees as family, rewarding and encouraging team work. His follow-your-bliss management style set the tone for many Valley success stories. Noyce's management style could be called "roll up your sleeves." He shunned fancy corporate cars, reserved parking spaces, private jets, offices, and furnishings in favor of a less-structured, relaxed working environment in which everyone contributed and no one benefited from lavish perquisites. By declining the usual executive perks he stood as a model for future generations of Intel CEOs. At Intel, he oversaw Ted Hoff's invention of the microprocessor—that was his second revolution.[25][26][27]

Intel's headquarters building, the Robert Noyce Building, in Santa Clara, California is named in his honor, as is the Robert N. Noyce '49 Science Center, which houses the science division of Grinnell College.

In his last interview , Noyce was asked what he would do if he were "emperor" of the United States. He said that he would, among other things, "make sure we are preparing our next generation to flourish in a high-tech age. And that means education of the lowest and the poorest, as well as at the graduate school level."

[edit] Family

He married Elizabeth Bottomley[28] in 1953 and divorced in 1974. They had four children together. Later in 1974 Noyce married Ann Bowers. Bowers was the first Director of Personnel for Intel Corporation and the first Vice President of Human Resources for Apple Inc. She now serves as Chair of the Board and the founding trustee of the Noyce Foundation. Active all his life, Noyce enjoyed reading Hemingway, flying his own airplane, hang gliding, and scuba diving.

He believed that microelectronics would continue to advance in complexity and sophistication well beyond its current state, leading to the question of what use society would make of the technology.

Noyce died from heart failure on June 3, 1990 at the Seton Medical Center in Austin, Texas.[29]

At the time of his death, he was the president and chief executive officer of Sematech Inc.,a non-profit consortium that performs basic research into semiconductor manufacturing. It was organized as a partnership between the United States government and 14 corporations in an attempt to help the American computer industry catch up with the Japanese in semiconductor manufacturing technology.

[edit] Awards and honors

In July, 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent 2,981,877 "Semiconductor Device and Lead Structure", a type of integrated circuit. This independent effort was recorded only a few months after the key findings of inventor Jack Kilby. For his co-invention of the integrated circuit and its world-transforming impact, three presidents of the United States honored him.

Noyce was a holder of many honors and awards. President Ronald Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Technology in 1987. Two years later, George H.W. Bush inducted him into the Business Hall of Fame. President George H. W. Bush presented the award, sponsored by the National Academy of Engineering, in a black-tie ceremony held at the State Department. In 1990 also Noyce—along with Jack Kilby, transistor inventor John Bardeen, and some other celebrities, received a "Lifetime Achievement Medal" during the bicentennial celebration of the Patent Act.

Noyce received the Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1966. He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1978 "for his contributions to the silicon integrated circuit, a cornerstone of modern electronics."[30] In 1979, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. In 1990, the National Academy of Engineering awarded him its Draper Prize.

Mr. Noyce was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1989. The science building at his alma mater, Grinnell College, is named after him.

[edit] Legacy

The Noyce Foundation was founded in 1991 by his family. The foundation is dedicated to improving public education in mathematics and science in grades K-12.

[edit] Patents

He would eventually accumulate sixteen patents to his name.

  • U.S. Patent 2,875,141 Method and apparatus for forming semiconductor structures, filed August 1954, issued February 1959, assigned to Philco Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 2,929,753 Transistor structure and method, filed April 1957, issued March 1960, assigned to Beckmann Instruments
  • U.S. Patent 2,959,681 Semiconductor scanning device, filed June 1959, issued November 1960, assigned to Fairchild Semiconductor
  • U.S. Patent 2,968,750 Transistor structure and method of making the same, filed March 1957, issued January 1961, assigned to Clevite Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 2,971,139 Semiconductor switching device, filed June 1959, issued February 1961, assigned to Fairchild Semiconductor
  • U.S. Patent 2,981,877 Semiconductor Device and Lead Structure, filed July 1959, issued April 1961, assigned to Fairchild Semiconductor
  • U.S. Patent 3,010,033 Field effect transistor, filed January 1958, issued November 1961, assigned to Clevite Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 3,098,160 Field controlled avalanche semiconductive device, filed February 1958, issued July 1963, assigned to Clevite Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 3,108,359 Method for fabricating transistors, filed June 1959, issued October 1963, assigned to Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.
  • U.S. Patent 3,111,590 Transistor structure controlled by an avalanche barrier, filed June 1958, issued November 1963, assigned to Clevite Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 3,140,206 Method of making a transistor structure (coinventor William Shockley), filed April 1957, issued July 1964, assigned to Clevite Corporation
  • U.S. Patent 3,150,299 Semiconductor circuit complex having isolation means, filed September 1959, issued September 1964, assigned to Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.
  • U.S. Patent 3,183,129 Method of forming a semiconductor, filed July 1963, issued May 1965, assigned to Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.
  • U.S. Patent 3,199,002 Solid state circuit with crossing leads, filed April 1961, issued August 1965, assigned to Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.
  • U.S. Patent 3,325,787 Trainable system, filed October 1964, issued June 1967, assigned to Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Lécuyer, p. 129
  2. ^ Berlin, p. 252
  3. ^ Vader, Darren (2009). "Biography: Steve Jobs". The Apple Museum. http://www.theapplemuseum.com/index.php?id=49. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  4. ^ a b Berlin, p. 10
  5. ^ a b Berlin, p. 11
  6. ^ Jones, 54
  7. ^ Jones, 86
  8. ^ Jones, 142
  9. ^ Burt, 71
  10. ^ Berlin, p. 14
  11. ^ Welles Gaylord, p. 130
  12. ^ Jones, p. 625
  13. ^ Jones, p. 626
  14. ^ a b Wolfe, Tom (December 1983). "The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce". Esquire Magazine. http://www.stanford.edu/class/e140/e140a/content/noyce.html. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  15. ^ Berlin, p. 12
  16. ^ Berlin, p. 7
  17. ^ Berlin, p. 22
  18. ^ a b Berlin, p. 24
  19. ^ Berlin, p. 106
  20. ^ a b Berlin, p. 1
  21. ^ Shurkin, p. 170
  22. ^ a b Shurkin, p. 181
  23. ^ Shurkin, p. 184
  24. ^ Tedlow, p. 405
  25. ^ One-time Intel CEO Andy Grove on the other hand, believed in maximizing the productivity of his employees, and he and the company became known for his guiding motto: "Only the paranoid survive". He was notorious for his directness in finding fault and would question his colleagues so intensely as occasionally to border on intimidation.
  26. ^ Garten, Jeffrey E. (April 11, 2005). "Andy Grove Made The Elephant Dance". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_15/b3928036_mz007.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  27. ^ Grove considered Noyce to be a "nice guy" but ineffectual. Noyce was, in Grove's estimation, essentially anti-competitive. This difference in styles reputedly caused some degree of friction between Noyce and Grove.
  28. ^ "Elizabeth B. Noyce, 65, Benefactor of Maine With Vast Settlement From Her Divorce". The New York Times. September 20, 1996. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/20/us/elizabeth-b-noyce-65-benefactor-of-maine-with-vast-settlement-from-her-divorce.html. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  29. ^ Hays, Constance L. (June 4, 1990). "An Inventor of the Microchip, Robert N. Noyce, Dies at 62". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/04/obituaries/an-inventor-of-the-microchip-robert-n-noyce-dies-at-62.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  30. ^ http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/history_center/biography/noyce.html

[edit] References

  • Berlin, Leslie The man behind the microchip: Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley Publisher Oxford University Press US, 2005 ISBN 0195163435
  • Burt, Daniel S. The chronology of American literature: America's literary achievements from the colonial era to modern times Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004. ISBN 0618168214
  • Jones, Emma C. Brewster. The Brewster Genealogy, 1566-1907: a Record of the Descendants of William Brewster of the "Mayflower," ruling elder of the Pilgrim church which founded Plymouth Colony in 1620. New York: Grafton Press, 1908.
  • Lécuyer, Christophe. Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970 Published by MIT Press, 2006.ISBN 0262122812
  • Shurkin, Joel N.. Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age Publisher Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 ISBN 0230551920
  • Tedlow, Richard S. Giants of enterprise: seven business innovators and the empires they built Publisher Harper Collins, 2003 ISBN 0066620368

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

Business positions
Preceded by
Company founded
Intel CEO
Succeeded by
Gordon Moore
IEEE Medal of Honor

H. Earle Vaughan (1977) · Robert Noyce (1978) · Richard Bellman (1979) · William Shockley (1980) · Sidney Darlington (1981) · John Tukey (1982) · Nicolaas Bloembergen (1983) · Norman F. Ramsey (1984) · John Roy Whinnery (1985) · Jack Kilby (1986) · Paul Lauterbur (1987) · Calvin Quate (1988) · C. Kumar Patel (1989) · Robert G. Gallager (1990) · Leo Esaki (1991) · Amos E. Joel, Jr. (1992) · Karl Johan Åström (1993) · Alfred Y. Cho (1994) · Lotfi A. Zadeh (1995) · Robert Metcalfe (1996) · George H. Heilmeier (1997) · Donald Pederson (1998) · Charles Concordia (1999) · Andrew Grove (2000)

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Welcome to AFRUCA

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International dialing codes use when phoning another country (international call dial code

International dialling codes

Here for your convenience are the international dialling codes.

This article is intended for our WebMill users but anyone who needs to contact someone in another country should find it useful. Before you can telephone or fax someone in another country you may need to add the dialling code for their country.

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This usually means simply adding xxx before their number, when specifying a number for an international audience most people/companies use a format similar to this UK number: +44 01908 0x0 0x0. The plus symbol indicates 'add 44' for the UK before dialling. Note: The numbers listed here are the complete official format though you can usually ignore the double zero and just use a plus sign before the number.

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z

Country Code   Country Code
Afghanistan 0093   Macau 00853
Albania 00355   Macedonia 00389
Algeria 00213   Madagascar 00261
Andorra 00376   Majorca 0034
Angola 00244   Malawi 00265
Anguilla 001264   Malaysia 0060
Antiga 001268   Maldives 00960
Argentina 0054   Mali 00223
Armenia 00374   Malta 00356
Australia 0061   Marshall Islands 00692
Austria 0043   Martinique 00596
Bahamas 001242   Mauritania 00222
Bahrain 00973   Mauritius 00230
Bangladesh 00880   Mayotte 00269
Barbados 001246   Mexico 0052
Belarus 00375   Micronesia 00691
Belgium 0032   Moldova 00373
Belize 00501   Monaco 00377
Benin 00229   Mongolia 00976
Bermuda 001441   Montserrat 001664
Bhutan 00975   Morocco 00212
Bolivia 00591   Mozambique 00258
Bosnia 00387   Myanmar (Burma) 0095
Botswana 00267   Namibia 00264
Brazil 0055   -- --
Brunei 00673   Nepal 00977
Bulgaria 00359   Netherlands (Holland) 0031
Burkina 00226   Netherlands Antilles 00599
Burundi 00257   New Caledonia 00687
Cambodia 00855   New Zealand 0064
Cameroon 00237   Nicaragua 00505
Canada 001   Nigar 00227
Cape Verde 00238   Nigeria 00234
Cayman Islands 001345   Niue 00683
Central African Republic 00236   Norfolk Island 00672
Chad 00235   Northern Ireland (UK) 0044
Chile 0056   North Korea 00850
China 0086   Norway 0047
Colombia 0057   Oman 00968
Comoros 00269   Pakistan 0092
Congo 00242   Palau 00680
Cook Islands 00682   Panama 00507
Costa Rica 00506   Papua New Guinea 00675
Croatia 00385   Paraguay 00595
Cuba 0053   Peru 0051
Cyprus 00357   Philippines 0063
Cyprus (Northern) 0090392   Poland 0048
Czech Republic 00420   Portugal 00351
Denmark 0045   Puerto Rico 001787
Diego Garcia 00246   Qatar 00974
Djibouti 00253   Romania 0040
Dominica 001767   Russian Federation 007
Dominican Republic 001809   Rwanda 00250
Ecuador 00593   Saint Helena 00290
Egypt 0020   Saint Kitts 001869
El Salvador 00503   Saint Lucia 001758
England (UK) 0044   Saint Pierre 00508
Equatorial Guinea 00240   Saint Vincent 001784
Eritrea 00291   Samoa US 00684
Estonia 00372   Samoa West 00685
Ethiopia 00251   San Marino 00378
Falkland Islands 00500   Sao Tone 00239
Faroe Islands 00298   Saudi Arabia 00966
Fiji 00679   Scotland (UK) 0044
Finland 00358   Senegal 00221
France 0033   Seychelles 00284
French Guiana 00594   Sierra Leone 00232
French Polynesia 00689   Singapore 0065
Gabon 00241   Slovakia 00421
Gambia 00220   Slovenia 00386
Georgia 00995   Solomon Islands 00677
Germany 0049   Somalia 00252
Ghana 00233   South Africa 0027
Gibraltar 00350   South Korea 0082
Greece 0030   Spain 0034
Greenland 00299   Sri Lanka 0094
Grenada 001473   Sudan 00249
Guadeloupe 00590   Suriname 00597
Guam 001671   Swaziland 00268
Guatemala 00502   Sweden 0046
Guinea 00224   Switzerland 0041
Guyana 00592   Syria 00963
Haiti 00509   Taiwan 00886
Holland (Netherlands) 0031   Tanzania 00255
Honduras 00504   Thailand 0066
Hong Kong 00852   Toga 00228
Hungary 0036   Tonga 00676
Ibiza (Spain) 0034   Tokelau 00690
Iceland 00354   Trinidad 001868
India 0091   Tunisia 00216
Indian Ocean 00873   Turkey 0090
Indonesia 0062   Tuvalu 00688
Iran 0098   Uganda 00256
Iraq 00964   Ukraine 00380
Ireland 00353   United Arab Emirates 00976
Israel 00972   United Kingdom 0044
Italy 0039   Uruguay 00598
Ivory Coast 00225   USA 001
Jamaica 001876   Uzbekistan 00998
Japan 0081   Vanuatu 00678
Jordan 00962   Venezuela 00582
Kazakhstan 007   Vietnam 0084
Kenya 00254   Virgin Islands UK 001284
Kiribati 00686   Virgin Islands US 001340
Kuwait 00965   Wales (UK) 0044
Kyrgyzstan 00996   Yemen 00967
Laos 00856   Yugoslavia 00381
Latvia 00371   Zambia 00260
Lebanon 00961   Zimbabwe 00263
Liberia 00231      
Libya 00218      
Lithuania 00370      
Luxembourg 00352      

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z

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